LetsEncrypt with ACME on OpenWRT

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ACME

ACME is a Let'sEncrypt Client implementation for OpenWRT. It will request and store SSL / HTTPS Certificates for various purposes. It can be utilized by Apache, NGinx, UHTTPD, etc. on OpenWRT.

Choices

As with everything in the world, there are choices. This article describes two different ways to install the acme.sh script. One, the "Easy Way". Two, the longer OpenWRT way.

The Easy Way of Installing acme.sh

  • Download the latest version of the script from here: https://github.com/acmesh-official/acme.sh(3.0.1 as of the writing of this article)
  • Just to stay within the world of OpenWRT go ahead and install acme.sh the usual way: opkg update, opkg install acme acme-dnsapi luci-app-acme (2.8.5 is the latest OpenWRT version)
  • Replace the /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh file with the one downloaded (3.0.1 or a more recent one)
  • Create these directories: /etc/acme/certs and /etc/acme/config (they can be anywhere, but following the OpenWRT paradigm, this is where they'd naturally seem to go)
  • Run the following command from within the /usr/lib/acme directory;
.acme.sh --install --home /usr/lib/acme --cert-home /etc/acme/certs --config-home /etc/acme/config --accountemail YourEmail@YourProvider.com --accountkey /etc/acme/account --useragent "" --log /var/log/acme.log
  • Add the following to the /etc/profile file;
export LE_WORKING_DIR="/usr/lib/acme"
export LE_CONFIG_HOME="/etc/acme/config"
alias acme.sh="/usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --config-home '/etc/acme/config'"


...all done. Using the acme.sh 'command' (actually a script) will now work like any other command within OpenWRT.

Installation (of basic files) the OpenWRT way

opkg update

opkg install acme acme-dnsapi luci-app-acme

Notes: The LuCI GUI is next to useless. It is an incomplete effort that isn't helpful. But thanks for trying. The run-acme script file included in the above installed packages appears to be used by the LuCI GUI as a 'wrapper' to make specific calls to the Acme.sh script. As of the writing of this, there appears to be no useful function of the acme service for OpenWRT.

Configuration (and more "installation") the OpenWRT way

Yes, the files have been installed, but according to the Acme.sh Documentation, one still needs to install it. The first part of the instructions on their site are completed by the OpenWRT OPKG utility. From there, only the ./acme.sh --install needs to be run (see below).

The below paths were chosen simply to fit into the OpenWRT path paradigm. The /etc/config/acme file is not modified by any of the above settings. The /etc/config/acme file is for the Acme LuCI GUI.

In order to run the below command and have it 'install' in an 'industry standard' (AKA, non-OpenWRT) manner, the OPKG installation directory needs to be moved (and the run-acme file needs to be copied too)

  • mv /usr/lib/acme /usr/lib/acme.OPKG - Move the OpenWRT OPKG installation to another directory
  • mkdir acme - Replace the acme directory
  • cp /usr/lib/acme.OPKG/run-acme /usr/lib/acme/ - Copy the OpenWRT proprietary run-acme file to it's original directory and path so the LuCI GUI can access it.

Keep in mind when updating the Acme package(s) via OPKG, the acme.sh, run-acme, and dnsapi directory will be over written. But that's fine as the acme.sh.env file should be left in place. Run the below script from the above Moved / Named directory;

.acme.sh --install --home /usr/lib/acme --cert-home /etc/acme/certs --config-home /etc/acme/config --accountemail YourEmail@YourProvider.com --accountkey /etc/acme/account --useragent "" --log /var/log/acme.log

In the above command(s), the switches / settings / parameters are defined as follows;

  • --home: The directory where the acme.sh script will be installed. Yes, the OpenWRT OPKG utility already installed the script here: /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh
  • --config-home: The default directory where acme.sh writes / stores configuration information for each certificate that is obtained. This can be included with each certificate request configuration, meaning that each certificate request configuration can be stored in it's own directory. This setting in the LuCI GUI is defined as State directory.
  • --cert-home: The default directory where the original copy of the certificate, key file, chain information, etc. will be stored. As with the certificate request configuration, this can be set with each certificate requested to a unique / different directory. This setting in the LuCI GUI is defined as State directory.
  • --accountemail: An email address to receive notifications from Let's Encrypt about certificate updates, etc. and to configure account settings. Yup, Acme.sh, Certbot, etc. all set up accounts. Let's Encrypt information about accounts: https://letsencrypt.org/docs/account-id/ This setting in the LuCI GUI is defined as Account email.
  • --accountkey: Path to store account information. This defaults to the same value as --config-home.
  • --useragent: Acme.sh gives a useless circular definition for this parameter. Certbot's equivalent paramter is --user-agent, and is defined as follows: Set a custom user agent string for the client. User agent strings allow the CA to collect high level statistics about success rates by OS, plugin and use case, and to know when to deprecate support for past Python versions and flags. If you wish to hide this information from the Let's Encrypt server, set this to "". (default: CertbotACMEClient/1.4.0 (certbot; CentOS Linux 7 (Core)) Authenticator/XXX Installer/YYY (SUBCOMMAND; flags: FLAGS) Py/2.7.5).
  • --log: The path to the log file. Useful, just in case something goes wrong, and put in a typical OpenWRT location for log files (remember the /var directory is a soft link to the /tmp directory, so information and log files stored there will not persist across reboots of a router.

The output of the command is as follows;

Installing to /usr/lib/acme
Installed to /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh
No profile is found, you will need to go into /usr/lib/acme to use acme.sh
Installing cron job
Good, bash is found, so change the shebang to use bash as preferred.
OK

Contents of the /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh.env file created by the 'installation';

export LE_WORKING_DIR="/usr/lib/acme"
export LE_CONFIG_HOME="/etc/acme/config"
alias acme.sh="/usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --config-home '/etc/acme/config'"

The above information will need to be added as environment variables. In OpenWRT the file used for all profiles is /etc/profiles. By default, there's one Administrator User for OpenWRT and that's root. One could also modify the environment variables for just the root user in the root user's proflile. Either way, add the above lines to the file (in whatever scenario is chosen). Then log out and log back in. The acme.sh script should be available system wide for commands.

Functionality

Based on the script files, it appears the "ACME Service" can be triggered by CRON or a Start or Restart of the service.

Usage Via Command Line

Quick Notes

--cert-file: Path and File Name where certificate will be copied to (IE, the 'originals' are stored elsewhere)

--key-file: Path and File Name where key will be copied to (IE, the 'originals' are stored elsewhere)

--fullchain-file: Path and File Name where full-chain will be copied to (IE, the 'originals' are stored elsewhere)

--ca-file: Path and File Name where ca will be copied to (IE, the 'originals' are stored elsewhere)

--home

--cert-home

--config-home

Source: https://github.com/acmesh-official/acme.sh

Also see contents of acme.sh --help below.

Examples

  • /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --revoke --domain WhatEverDomainName.xyz
  • /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --list
  • /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --issue --webroot /usr/share/apache2/htdocs --domain WhatEverDomainName.xyz --home /etc/acme --cert-home /etc/acme/certs --config-home /etc/acme/config
  • Subject Alternative Names can be used too (IE, more than one Domain Name can be associated with a certificate):
    • /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --issue --webroot /usr/share/apache2/htdocs --domain WhatEverDomainName.xyz,WhatEverOtherDomainName.xyz,Another.xyz,AndSoOn.xyz --home /etc/acme --cert-home /etc/acme/certs --config-home /etc/acme/config
    • /usr/lib/acme/acme.sh --issue --webroot /usr/share/apache2/htdocs --domain WhatEverDomainName.xyz --domain WhatEverOtherDomainName.xyz --domain Another.xyz --domain AndSoOn.xyz --home /etc/acme --cert-home /etc/acme/certs --config-home /etc/acme/config

Certbot Comparisons

  • Webroot Method
    • Acme.sh: --webroot WhatEverPath
    • Certbot: --webroot --webroot-path WhatEverPath (there are no parameters after --webroot, so it seems Acme.sh just combined the two commands since --webroot for Certbot implies --webroot-path would be needed, if there's no default)
  • Get a Certificate
    • Acme.sh --issue
    • Certbot: certonly (no double dashes)
  • Obtaining a Certificate via DNS
    • Acme.sh --issue --dns dns_nsupdate --domain WhatEverDomain
    • Certbot: certonly --dns-rfc2136 --dns-rfc2136-credentials WhatEverCredentialFile -d WhatEverDomain

Using DNS (BIND / Named) to Obtain a Certificate (with a Certbot comparison thrown in)

All of the below assume you are running your own fully functional BIND / Named server.

BIND / Named Stuff to do

First generate a "user name / password" (AKA nametypeand key)

  • Acme.sh: dnssec-keygen -a hmac-sha512 -b 512 -n USER WhatEverFileOrKeyName (Thankfully, OpenWRT's dnssec-keygen cannot create SHA512 keys, so you'll need access to another Linux System like CentOS to generate the key file)
    • Example: dnssec-keygen -a hmac-sha512 -b 512 -n USER ACME
  • Look for a .key and .private file in the directory the dnssec-keygen command was run in.
  • Copy the files to the bind / named directory, for OpenWRT it is /etc/bind OR be in that directory when the dnssec-keygen command is run
  • From the WhatEverName.private file, copy the information after the Key: line, IE Key: aBunchOfNumbersAndLetters (without copying Key:)
  • Add this information to the /etc/bind/named.conf file (default file location for many flavors of Linux)
key "acme" {
      algorithm hmac-sha512;
      secret "WhatEverTheStringOfTextIsInThePrivateFile";
};
  • Add this information to the specific zone that will be updated (If the below allow-update directive is in place and has an existing key, just add the additional key line);
zone "WhatEverZoneName.comORorgORnet" {

	type master;
	allow-update {
	key acme;
	};

  	file "/etc/bind/masters/WhatEverZoneName.comORorgORnet";
	};

Acme.sh Stuff to do

This needs a dedicated article...

Files

/etc/config/acme: OpenWRT configuration file that receives / sends information from LuCI GUI

config acme
       option state_dir '/etc/acme'
       option account_email 'email@example.org'
       option debug 0

config cert 'example'
       option enabled 0
       option use_staging 1
       option keylength 2048
       option update_uhttpd 1
       option update_nginx 1
       option webroot ""
       option dns ""
       list domains example.org

/etc/acme: Storage location for certificates, referenced by /etc/config/acme /etc/init.d/acme: Service stop / start file

#!/bin/sh /etc/rc.common

USE_PROCD=1

START=50
SCRIPT=/usr/lib/acme/run-acme

start_service()
{
    procd_open_instance
    procd_set_param command $SCRIPT
    procd_set_param file /etc/config/acme
    procd_set_param stdout 1
    procd_set_param stderr 1
    procd_close_instance
}

reload_service() {
    rc_procd start_service "$@"
    return 0
}

stop_service() {
    return 0
}

boot() {
    touch "/var/run/acme_boot"
    start
}

service_triggers()
{
    procd_add_reload_trigger acme
}

/usr/lib/acme/acme.sh: Appears to be a generic shell script. It can be used via the command line and is also used by the below /usr/lib/acme/run-acme "wrapper". Below is the help file;

https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh
v2.8.5
Usage: acme.sh  command ...[parameters]....
Commands:
  --help, -h               Show this help message.
  --version, -v            Show version info.
  --install                Install acme.sh to your system.
  --uninstall              Uninstall acme.sh, and uninstall the cron job.
  --upgrade                Upgrade acme.sh to the latest code from https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh.
  --issue                  Issue a cert.
  --signcsr                Issue a cert from an existing csr.
  --deploy                 Deploy the cert to your server.
  --install-cert           Install the issued cert to apache/nginx or any other server.
  --renew, -r              Renew a cert.
  --renew-all              Renew all the certs.
  --revoke                 Revoke a cert.
  --remove                 Remove the cert from list of certs known to acme.sh.
  --list                   List all the certs.
  --showcsr                Show the content of a csr.
  --install-cronjob        Install the cron job to renew certs, you don't need to call this. The 'install' command can automatically install the cron job.
  --uninstall-cronjob      Uninstall the cron job. The 'uninstall' command can do this automatically.
  --cron                   Run cron job to renew all the certs.
  --toPkcs                 Export the certificate and key to a pfx file.
  --toPkcs8                Convert to pkcs8 format.
  --update-account         Update account info.
  --register-account       Register account key.
  --deactivate-account     Deactivate the account.
  --create-account-key     Create an account private key, professional use.
  --create-domain-key      Create an domain private key, professional use.
  --createCSR, -ccsr       Create CSR , professional use.
  --deactivate             Deactivate the domain authz, professional use.
  --set-notify             Set the cron notification hook, level or mode.


Parameters:
  --domain, -d   domain.tld         Specifies a domain, used to issue, renew or revoke etc.
  --challenge-alias domain.tld      The challenge domain alias for DNS alias mode: https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh/wiki/DNS-alias-mode
  --domain-alias domain.tld         The domain alias for DNS alias mode: https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh/wiki/DNS-alias-mode
  --force, -f                       Used to force to install or force to renew a cert immediately.
  --staging, --test                 Use staging server, just for test.
  --debug                           Output debug info.
  --output-insecure                 Output all the sensitive messages. By default all the credentials/sensitive messages are hidden from the output/debug/log for secure.
  --webroot, -w  /path/to/webroot   Specifies the web root folder for web root mode.
  --standalone                      Use standalone mode.
  --alpn                            Use standalone alpn mode.
  --stateless                       Use stateless mode, see: https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh/wiki/Stateless-Mode
  --apache                          Use apache mode.
  --dns [dns_cf|dns_dp|dns_cx|/path/to/api/file]   Use dns mode or dns api.
  --dnssleep  [120]                  The time in seconds to wait for all the txt records to take effect in dns api mode. Default 120 seconds.

  --keylength, -k [2048]            Specifies the domain key length: 2048, 3072, 4096, 8192 or ec-256, ec-384.
  --accountkeylength, -ak [2048]    Specifies the account key length.
  --log    [/path/to/logfile]       Specifies the log file. The default is: "/root/.acme.sh/acme.sh.log" if you don't give a file path here.
  --log-level 1|2                   Specifies the log level, default is 1.
  --syslog [0|3|6|7]                Syslog level, 0: disable syslog, 3: error, 6: info, 7: debug.

  These parameters are to install the cert to nginx/apache or any other server after issue/renew a cert:

  --cert-file                       After issue/renew, the cert will be copied to this path.
  --key-file                        After issue/renew, the key will be copied to this path.
  --ca-file                         After issue/renew, the intermediate cert will be copied to this path.
  --fullchain-file                  After issue/renew, the fullchain cert will be copied to this path.

  --reloadcmd "service nginx reload" After issue/renew, it's used to reload the server.

  --server SERVER                   ACME Directory Resource URI. (default: https://acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org/directory)
  --accountconf                     Specifies a customized account config file.
  --home                            Specifies the home dir for acme.sh.
  --cert-home                       Specifies the home dir to save all the certs, only valid for '--install' command.
  --config-home                     Specifies the home dir to save all the configurations.
  --useragent                       Specifies the user agent string. it will be saved for future use too.
  --accountemail                    Specifies the account email, only valid for the '--install' and '--update-account' command.
  --accountkey                      Specifies the account key path, only valid for the '--install' command.
  --days                            Specifies the days to renew the cert when using '--issue' command. The default value is 60 days.
  --httpport                        Specifies the standalone listening port. Only valid if the server is behind a reverse proxy or load balancer.
  --tlsport                         Specifies the standalone tls listening port. Only valid if the server is behind a reverse proxy or load balancer.
  --local-address                   Specifies the standalone/tls server listening address, in case you have multiple ip addresses.
  --listraw                         Only used for '--list' command, list the certs in raw format.
  --stopRenewOnError, -se           Only valid for '--renew-all' command. Stop if one cert has error in renewal.
  --insecure                        Do not check the server certificate, in some devices, the api server's certificate may not be trusted.
  --ca-bundle                       Specifies the path to the CA certificate bundle to verify api server's certificate.
  --ca-path                         Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format, used by wget or curl.
  --nocron                          Only valid for '--install' command, which means: do not install the default cron job. In this case, the certs will not be renewed automatically.
  --noprofile                       Only valid for '--install' command, which means: do not install aliases to user profile.
  --no-color                        Do not output color text.
  --force-color                     Force output of color text. Useful for non-interactive use with the aha tool for HTML E-Mails.
  --ecc                             Specifies to use the ECC cert. Valid for '--install-cert', '--renew', '--revoke', '--toPkcs' and '--createCSR'
  --csr                             Specifies the input csr.
  --pre-hook                        Command to be run before obtaining any certificates.
  --post-hook                       Command to be run after attempting to obtain/renew certificates. No matter the obtain/renew is success or failed.
  --renew-hook                      Command to be run once for each successfully renewed certificate.
  --deploy-hook                     The hook file to deploy cert
  --ocsp-must-staple, --ocsp        Generate ocsp must Staple extension.
  --always-force-new-domain-key     Generate new domain key when renewal. Otherwise, the domain key is not changed by default.
  --auto-upgrade   [0|1]            Valid for '--upgrade' command, indicating whether to upgrade automatically in future.
  --listen-v4                       Force standalone/tls server to listen at ipv4.
  --listen-v6                       Force standalone/tls server to listen at ipv6.
  --openssl-bin                     Specifies a custom openssl bin location.
  --use-wget                        Force to use wget, if you have both curl and wget installed.
  --yes-I-know-dns-manual-mode-enough-go-ahead-please  Force to use dns manual mode: https://github.com/Neilpang/acme.sh/wiki/dns-manual-mode
  --branch, -b                      Only valid for '--upgrade' command, specifies the branch name to upgrade to.

  --notify-level  0|1|2|3           Set the notification level:  Default value is 2.
                                     0: disabled, no notification will be sent.
                                     1: send notifications only when there is an error.
                                     2: send notifications when a cert is successfully renewed, or there is an error.
                                     3: send notifications when a cert is skipped, renewed, or error.
  --notify-mode   0|1               Set notification mode. Default value is 0.
                                     0: Bulk mode. Send all the domain's notifications in one message(mail).
                                     1: Cert mode. Send a message for every single cert.
  --notify-hook   [hookname]        Set the notify hook

/usr/lib/acme/run-acme: According to the notes in the file, it's a "wrapper" for the acme.sh script.

Certbot Help File (for comparison)

usage: 
  certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ...

Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates.  By default,
it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the
certificate. The most common SUBCOMMANDS and flags are:

obtain, install, and renew certificates:
    (default) run   Obtain & install a certificate in your current webserver
    certonly        Obtain or renew a certificate, but do not install it
    renew           Renew all previously obtained certificates that are near expiry
    enhance         Add security enhancements to your existing configuration
   -d DOMAINS       Comma-separated list of domains to obtain a certificate for

  --apache          Use the Apache plugin for authentication & installation
  --standalone      Run a standalone webserver for authentication
  (the certbot nginx plugin is not installed)
  --webroot         Place files in a server's webroot folder for authentication
  --manual          Obtain certificates interactively, or using shell script hooks

   -n               Run non-interactively
  --test-cert       Obtain a test certificate from a staging server
  --dry-run         Test "renew" or "certonly" without saving any certificates to disk

manage certificates:
    certificates    Display information about certificates you have from Certbot
    revoke          Revoke a certificate (supply --cert-name or --cert-path)
    delete          Delete a certificate (supply --cert-name)

manage your account:
    register        Create an ACME account
    unregister      Deactivate an ACME account
    update_account  Update an ACME account
  --agree-tos       Agree to the ACME server's Subscriber Agreement
   -m EMAIL         Email address for important account notifications

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -c CONFIG_FILE, --config CONFIG_FILE
                        path to config file (default: /etc/letsencrypt/cli.ini
                        and ~/.config/letsencrypt/cli.ini)
  -v, --verbose         This flag can be used multiple times to incrementally
                        increase the verbosity of output, e.g. -vvv. (default:
                        -2)
  --max-log-backups MAX_LOG_BACKUPS
                        Specifies the maximum number of backup logs that
                        should be kept by Certbot's built in log rotation.
                        Setting this flag to 0 disables log rotation entirely,
                        causing Certbot to always append to the same log file.
                        (default: 1000)
  -n, --non-interactive, --noninteractive
                        Run without ever asking for user input. This may
                        require additional command line flags; the client will
                        try to explain which ones are required if it finds one
                        missing (default: False)
  --force-interactive   Force Certbot to be interactive even if it detects
                        it's not being run in a terminal. This flag cannot be
                        used with the renew subcommand. (default: False)
  -d DOMAIN, --domains DOMAIN, --domain DOMAIN
                        Domain names to apply. For multiple domains you can
                        use multiple -d flags or enter a comma separated list
                        of domains as a parameter. The first domain provided
                        will be the subject CN of the certificate, and all
                        domains will be Subject Alternative Names on the
                        certificate. The first domain will also be used in
                        some software user interfaces and as the file paths
                        for the certificate and related material unless
                        otherwise specified or you already have a certificate
                        with the same name. In the case of a name collision it
                        will append a number like 0001 to the file path name.
                        (default: Ask)
  --eab-kid EAB_KID     Key Identifier for External Account Binding (default:
                        None)
  --eab-hmac-key EAB_HMAC_KEY
                        HMAC key for External Account Binding (default: None)
  --cert-name CERTNAME  Certificate name to apply. This name is used by
                        Certbot for housekeeping and in file paths; it doesn't
                        affect the content of the certificate itself. To see
                        certificate names, run 'certbot certificates'. When
                        creating a new certificate, specifies the new
                        certificate's name. (default: the first provided
                        domain or the name of an existing certificate on your
                        system for the same domains)
  --dry-run             Perform a test run of the client, obtaining test
                        (invalid) certificates but not saving them to disk.
                        This can currently only be used with the 'certonly'
                        and 'renew' subcommands. Note: Although --dry-run
                        tries to avoid making any persistent changes on a
                        system, it is not completely side-effect free: if used
                        with webserver authenticator plugins like apache and
                        nginx, it makes and then reverts temporary config
                        changes in order to obtain test certificates, and
                        reloads webservers to deploy and then roll back those
                        changes. It also calls --pre-hook and --post-hook
                        commands if they are defined because they may be
                        necessary to accurately simulate renewal. --deploy-
                        hook commands are not called. (default: False)
  --debug-challenges    After setting up challenges, wait for user input
                        before submitting to CA (default: False)
  --preferred-challenges PREF_CHALLS
                        A sorted, comma delimited list of the preferred
                        challenge to use during authorization with the most
                        preferred challenge listed first (Eg, "dns" or
                        "http,dns"). Not all plugins support all challenges.
                        See https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#plugins
                        for details. ACME Challenges are versioned, but if you
                        pick "http" rather than "http-01", Certbot will select
                        the latest version automatically. (default: [])
  --user-agent USER_AGENT
                        Set a custom user agent string for the client. User
                        agent strings allow the CA to collect high level
                        statistics about success rates by OS, plugin and use
                        case, and to know when to deprecate support for past
                        Python versions and flags. If you wish to hide this
                        information from the Let's Encrypt server, set this to
                        "". (default: CertbotACMEClient/1.4.0 (certbot; CentOS
                        Linux 7 (Core)) Authenticator/XXX Installer/YYY
                        (SUBCOMMAND; flags: FLAGS) Py/2.7.5). The flags
                        encoded in the user agent are: --duplicate, --force-
                        renew, --allow-subset-of-names, -n, and whether any
                        hooks are set.
  --user-agent-comment USER_AGENT_COMMENT
                        Add a comment to the default user agent string. May be
                        used when repackaging Certbot or calling it from
                        another tool to allow additional statistical data to
                        be collected. Ignored if --user-agent is set.
                        (Example: Foo-Wrapper/1.0) (default: None)

automation:
  Flags for automating execution & other tweaks

  --keep-until-expiring, --keep, --reinstall
                        If the requested certificate matches an existing
                        certificate, always keep the existing one until it is
                        due for renewal (for the 'run' subcommand this means
                        reinstall the existing certificate). (default: Ask)
  --expand              If an existing certificate is a strict subset of the
                        requested names, always expand and replace it with the
                        additional names. (default: Ask)
  --version             show program's version number and exit
  --force-renewal, --renew-by-default
                        If a certificate already exists for the requested
                        domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is
                        near expiry. (Often --keep-until-expiring is more
                        appropriate). Also implies --expand. (default: False)
  --renew-with-new-domains
                        If a certificate already exists for the requested
                        certificate name but does not match the requested
                        domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is
                        near expiry. (default: False)
  --reuse-key           When renewing, use the same private key as the
                        existing certificate. (default: False)
  --allow-subset-of-names
                        When performing domain validation, do not consider it
                        a failure if authorizations can not be obtained for a
                        strict subset of the requested domains. This may be
                        useful for allowing renewals for multiple domains to
                        succeed even if some domains no longer point at this
                        system. This option cannot be used with --csr.
                        (default: False)
  --agree-tos           Agree to the ACME Subscriber Agreement (default: Ask)
  --duplicate           Allow making a certificate lineage that duplicates an
                        existing one (both can be renewed in parallel)
                        (default: False)
  --os-packages-only    (certbot-auto only) install OS package dependencies
                        and then stop (default: False)
  --no-self-upgrade     (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script
                        from upgrading itself to newer released versions
                        (default: Upgrade automatically)
  --no-bootstrap        (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script
                        from installing OS-level dependencies (default: Prompt
                        to install OS-wide dependencies, but exit if the user
                        says 'No')
  --no-permissions-check
                        (certbot-auto only) skip the check on the file system
                        permissions of the certbot-auto script (default:
                        False)
  -q, --quiet           Silence all output except errors. Useful for
                        automation via cron. Implies --non-interactive.
                        (default: False)

security:
  Security parameters & server settings

  --rsa-key-size N      Size of the RSA key. (default: 2048)
  --must-staple         Adds the OCSP Must Staple extension to the
                        certificate. Autoconfigures OCSP Stapling for
                        supported setups (Apache version >= 2.3.3 ). (default:
                        False)
  --redirect            Automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS for
                        the newly authenticated vhost. (default: redirect
                        enabled for install and run, disabled for enhance)
  --no-redirect         Do not automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to
                        HTTPS for the newly authenticated vhost. (default:
                        redirect enabled for install and run, disabled for
                        enhance)
  --hsts                Add the Strict-Transport-Security header to every HTTP
                        response. Forcing browser to always use SSL for the
                        domain. Defends against SSL Stripping. (default: None)
  --uir                 Add the "Content-Security-Policy: upgrade-insecure-
                        requests" header to every HTTP response. Forcing the
                        browser to use https:// for every http:// resource.
                        (default: None)
  --staple-ocsp         Enables OCSP Stapling. A valid OCSP response is
                        stapled to the certificate that the server offers
                        during TLS. (default: None)
  --strict-permissions  Require that all configuration files are owned by the
                        current user; only needed if your config is somewhere
                        unsafe like /tmp/ (default: False)
  --auto-hsts           Gradually increasing max-age value for HTTP Strict
                        Transport Security security header (default: False)

testing:
  The following flags are meant for testing and integration purposes only.

  --test-cert, --staging
                        Use the staging server to obtain or revoke test
                        (invalid) certificates; equivalent to --server https
                        ://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
                        (default: False)
  --debug               Show tracebacks in case of errors, and allow certbot-
                        auto execution on experimental platforms (default:
                        False)
  --no-verify-ssl       Disable verification of the ACME server's certificate.
                        (default: False)
  --http-01-port HTTP01_PORT
                        Port used in the http-01 challenge. This only affects
                        the port Certbot listens on. A conforming ACME server
                        will still attempt to connect on port 80. (default:
                        80)
  --http-01-address HTTP01_ADDRESS
                        The address the server listens to during http-01
                        challenge. (default: )
  --https-port HTTPS_PORT
                        Port used to serve HTTPS. This affects which port
                        Nginx will listen on after a LE certificate is
                        installed. (default: 443)
  --break-my-certs      Be willing to replace or renew valid certificates with
                        invalid (testing/staging) certificates (default:
                        False)

paths:
  Flags for changing execution paths & servers

  --cert-path CERT_PATH
                        Path to where certificate is saved (with auth --csr),
                        installed from, or revoked. (default: None)
  --key-path KEY_PATH   Path to private key for certificate installation or
                        revocation (if account key is missing) (default: None)
  --fullchain-path FULLCHAIN_PATH
                        Accompanying path to a full certificate chain
                        (certificate plus chain). (default: None)
  --chain-path CHAIN_PATH
                        Accompanying path to a certificate chain. (default:
                        None)
  --config-dir CONFIG_DIR
                        Configuration directory. (default: /etc/letsencrypt)
  --work-dir WORK_DIR   Working directory. (default: /var/lib/letsencrypt)
  --logs-dir LOGS_DIR   Logs directory. (default: /var/log/letsencrypt)
  --server SERVER       ACME Directory Resource URI. (default:
                        https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory)

manage:
  Various subcommands and flags are available for managing your
  certificates:

  certificates          List certificates managed by Certbot
  delete                Clean up all files related to a certificate
  renew                 Renew all certificates (or one specified with --cert-
                        name)
  revoke                Revoke a certificate specified with --cert-path or
                        --cert-name
  update_symlinks       Recreate symlinks in your /etc/letsencrypt/live/
                        directory

run:
  Options for obtaining & installing certificates

certonly:
  Options for modifying how a certificate is obtained

  --csr CSR             Path to a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) in DER or
                        PEM format. Currently --csr only works with the
                        'certonly' subcommand. (default: None)

renew:
  The 'renew' subcommand will attempt to renew all certificates (or more
  precisely, certificate lineages) you have previously obtained if they are
  close to expiry, and print a summary of the results. By default, 'renew'
  will reuse the options used to create obtain or most recently successfully
  renew each certificate lineage. You can try it with `--dry-run` first. For
  more fine-grained control, you can renew individual lineages with the
  `certonly` subcommand. Hooks are available to run commands before and
  after renewal; see https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#renewal for
  more information on these.

  --pre-hook PRE_HOOK   Command to be run in a shell before obtaining any
                        certificates. Intended primarily for renewal, where it
                        can be used to temporarily shut down a webserver that
                        might conflict with the standalone plugin. This will
                        only be called if a certificate is actually to be
                        obtained/renewed. When renewing several certificates
                        that have identical pre-hooks, only the first will be
                        executed. (default: None)
  --post-hook POST_HOOK
                        Command to be run in a shell after attempting to
                        obtain/renew certificates. Can be used to deploy
                        renewed certificates, or to restart any servers that
                        were stopped by --pre-hook. This is only run if an
                        attempt was made to obtain/renew a certificate. If
                        multiple renewed certificates have identical post-
                        hooks, only one will be run. (default: None)
  --deploy-hook DEPLOY_HOOK
                        Command to be run in a shell once for each
                        successfully issued certificate. For this command, the
                        shell variable $RENEWED_LINEAGE will point to the
                        config live subdirectory (for example,
                        "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com") containing the
                        new certificates and keys; the shell variable
                        $RENEWED_DOMAINS will contain a space-delimited list
                        of renewed certificate domains (for example,
                        "example.com www.example.com" (default: None)
  --disable-hook-validation
                        Ordinarily the commands specified for --pre-hook
                        /--post-hook/--deploy-hook will be checked for
                        validity, to see if the programs being run are in the
                        $PATH, so that mistakes can be caught early, even when
                        the hooks aren't being run just yet. The validation is
                        rather simplistic and fails if you use more advanced
                        shell constructs, so you can use this switch to
                        disable it. (default: False)
  --no-directory-hooks  Disable running executables found in Certbot's hook
                        directories during renewal. (default: False)
  --disable-renew-updates
                        Disable automatic updates to your server configuration
                        that would otherwise be done by the selected installer
                        plugin, and triggered when the user executes "certbot
                        renew", regardless of if the certificate is renewed.
                        This setting does not apply to important TLS
                        configuration updates. (default: False)
  --no-autorenew        Disable auto renewal of certificates. (default: True)

certificates:
  List certificates managed by Certbot

delete:
  Options for deleting a certificate

revoke:
  Options for revocation of certificates

  --reason {unspecified,keycompromise,affiliationchanged,superseded,cessationofoperation}
                        Specify reason for revoking certificate. (default:
                        unspecified)
  --delete-after-revoke
                        Delete certificates after revoking them, along with
                        all previous and later versions of those certificates.
                        (default: None)
  --no-delete-after-revoke
                        Do not delete certificates after revoking them. This
                        option should be used with caution because the 'renew'
                        subcommand will attempt to renew undeleted revoked
                        certificates. (default: None)

register:
  Options for account registration

  --register-unsafely-without-email
                        Specifying this flag enables registering an account
                        with no email address. This is strongly discouraged,
                        because in the event of key loss or account compromise
                        you will irrevocably lose access to your account. You
                        will also be unable to receive notice about impending
                        expiration or revocation of your certificates. Updates
                        to the Subscriber Agreement will still affect you, and
                        will be effective 14 days after posting an update to
                        the web site. (default: False)
  -m EMAIL, --email EMAIL
                        Email used for registration and recovery contact. Use
                        comma to register multiple emails, ex:
                        u1@example.com,u2@example.com. (default: Ask).
  --eff-email           Share your e-mail address with EFF (default: None)
  --no-eff-email        Don't share your e-mail address with EFF (default:
                        None)

update_account:
  Options for account modification

unregister:
  Options for account deactivation.

  --account ACCOUNT_ID  Account ID to use (default: None)

install:
  Options for modifying how a certificate is deployed

rollback:
  Options for rolling back server configuration changes

  --checkpoints N       Revert configuration N number of checkpoints.
                        (default: 1)

plugins:
  Options for the "plugins" subcommand

  --init                Initialize plugins. (default: False)
  --prepare             Initialize and prepare plugins. (default: False)
  --authenticators      Limit to authenticator plugins only. (default: None)
  --installers          Limit to installer plugins only. (default: None)

update_symlinks:
  Recreates certificate and key symlinks in /etc/letsencrypt/live, if you
  changed them by hand or edited a renewal configuration file

enhance:
  Helps to harden the TLS configuration by adding security enhancements to
  already existing configuration.

plugins:
  Plugin Selection: Certbot client supports an extensible plugins
  architecture. See 'certbot plugins' for a list of all installed plugins
  and their names. You can force a particular plugin by setting options
  provided below. Running --help <plugin_name> will list flags specific to
  that plugin.

  --configurator CONFIGURATOR
                        Name of the plugin that is both an authenticator and
                        an installer. Should not be used together with
                        --authenticator or --installer. (default: Ask)
  -a AUTHENTICATOR, --authenticator AUTHENTICATOR
                        Authenticator plugin name. (default: None)
  -i INSTALLER, --installer INSTALLER
                        Installer plugin name (also used to find domains).
                        (default: None)
  --apache              Obtain and install certificates using Apache (default:
                        False)
  --nginx               Obtain and install certificates using Nginx (default:
                        False)
  --standalone          Obtain certificates using a "standalone" webserver.
                        (default: False)
  --manual              Provide laborious manual instructions for obtaining a
                        certificate (default: False)
  --webroot             Obtain certificates by placing files in a webroot
                        directory. (default: False)
  --dns-cloudflare      Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Cloudflare for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-cloudxns        Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using CloudXNS for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-digitalocean    Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using DigitalOcean for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-dnsimple        Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using DNSimple for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-dnsmadeeasy     Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using DNS Made Easy for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-gehirn          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Gehirn Infrastructure Service for DNS).
                        (default: False)
  --dns-google          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Google Cloud DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-linode          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Linode for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-luadns          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using LuaDNS for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-nsone           Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using NS1 for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-ovh             Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using OVH for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-rfc2136         Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using BIND for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-route53         Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Route53 for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-sakuracloud     Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Sakura Cloud for DNS). (default: False)

apache:
  Apache Web Server plugin

  --apache-enmod APACHE_ENMOD
                        Path to the Apache 'a2enmod' binary (default: None)
  --apache-dismod APACHE_DISMOD
                        Path to the Apache 'a2dismod' binary (default: None)
  --apache-le-vhost-ext APACHE_LE_VHOST_EXT
                        SSL vhost configuration extension (default: -le-
                        ssl.conf)
  --apache-server-root APACHE_SERVER_ROOT
                        Apache server root directory (default: /etc/httpd)
  --apache-vhost-root APACHE_VHOST_ROOT
                        Apache server VirtualHost configuration root (default:
                        None)
  --apache-logs-root APACHE_LOGS_ROOT
                        Apache server logs directory (default: /var/log/httpd)
  --apache-challenge-location APACHE_CHALLENGE_LOCATION
                        Directory path for challenge configuration (default:
                        /etc/httpd/conf.d)
  --apache-handle-modules APACHE_HANDLE_MODULES
                        Let installer handle enabling required modules for you
                        (Only Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False)
  --apache-handle-sites APACHE_HANDLE_SITES
                        Let installer handle enabling sites for you (Only
                        Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False)
  --apache-ctl APACHE_CTL
                        Full path to Apache control script (default:
                        apachectl)

dns-rfc2136:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using BIND for
  DNS).

  --dns-rfc2136-propagation-seconds DNS_RFC2136_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 60)
  --dns-rfc2136-credentials DNS_RFC2136_CREDENTIALS
                        RFC 2136 credentials INI file. (default: None)

manual:
  Authenticate through manual configuration or custom shell scripts. When
  using shell scripts, an authenticator script must be provided. The
  environment variables available to this script depend on the type of
  challenge. $CERTBOT_DOMAIN will always contain the domain being
  authenticated. For HTTP-01 and DNS-01, $CERTBOT_VALIDATION is the
  validation string, and $CERTBOT_TOKEN is the filename of the resource
  requested when performing an HTTP-01 challenge. An additional cleanup
  script can also be provided and can use the additional variable
  $CERTBOT_AUTH_OUTPUT which contains the stdout output from the auth
  script.For both authenticator and cleanup script, on HTTP-01 and DNS-01
  challenges,$CERTBOT_REMAINING_CHALLENGES will be equal to the number of
  challenges that remain after the current one, and $CERTBOT_ALL_DOMAINS
  contains a comma-separated list of all domains that are challenged for the
  current certificate.

  --manual-auth-hook MANUAL_AUTH_HOOK
                        Path or command to execute for the authentication
                        script (default: None)
  --manual-cleanup-hook MANUAL_CLEANUP_HOOK
                        Path or command to execute for the cleanup script
                        (default: None)
  --manual-public-ip-logging-ok
                        Automatically allows public IP logging (default: Ask)

null:
  Null Installer

standalone:
  Spin up a temporary webserver

webroot:
  Place files in webroot directory

  --webroot-path WEBROOT_PATH, -w WEBROOT_PATH
                        public_html / webroot path. This can be specified
                        multiple times to handle different domains; each
                        domain will have the webroot path that preceded it.
                        For instance: `-w /var/www/example -d example.com -d
                        www.example.com -w /var/www/thing -d thing.net -d
                        m.thing.net` (default: Ask)
  --webroot-map WEBROOT_MAP
                        JSON dictionary mapping domains to webroot paths; this
                        implies -d for each entry. You may need to escape this
                        from your shell. E.g.: --webroot-map
                        '{"eg1.is,m.eg1.is":"/www/eg1/", "eg2.is":"/www/eg2"}'
                        This option is merged with, but takes precedence over,
                        -w / -d entries. At present, if you put webroot-map in
                        a config file, it needs to be on a single line, like:
                        webroot-map = {"example.com":"/var/www"}. (default:
                        {})